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Unexplained Infertility Causes and Treatment


What is Unexplained Infertility?

Unexplained infertility is a type of infertility that has no definite cause, despite the presence of a fertility work-up. Fertility assessments are usually undertaken by examining the semen of men as well as the ovulation patterns and the Fallopian tubes of women.

Unexplained Infertility Pictures

Unexplained Infertility becomes one of the reasons for marriage problems

According to statistics, up to 25 percent of infertility cases, on the one hand, are unexplained, i.e., the direct reason of a couple’s infertility cannot be identified, i.e., whether the man or woman is the cause of infertility. On the other hand, infertility that is caused by problems in men as well as women constitutes 30 percent of infertility cases.

Causes of unexplained infertility

Since there is no direct cause of infertility such as unovulation and poor sperm morphology or structure, the real cause of unexplained fertility which may be present is usually unknown or undetected by fertility testing. Possible reasons for unexplained infertility include:

1. Premature release of egg cells

When an egg cell is released before the proper time for fertilization, it may prevent proper fertilization of the egg. Moreover, the egg cell may not be able to reach the Fallopian tubes.

2. Inability of the sperm to reach the egg

Fertility testing is also not able to detect whether sperm cells reach the egg during copulation. The sperm cells may be normal in quantity and morphology, but they may just be unable to reach the egg for fertilization due to unknown causes.

3. Failure of fertilization

Presence of normal egg cells and sperm cells may still not lead to successful fertilization in some people. In this case, other people opt to employ monitored fertilization in the case of in vitro fertilization (IVF).

4. Disturbance in the travel of zygote to the uterus

Some zygotes may also not be able to travel to the uterus for proper implantation. Due to this, the zygote does not receive proper nutrition, leading to cell death and eventually failure of pregnancy, despite fertilization. This often goes undetected as the presence of zygote may still not lead to the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin that signals a positive pregnancy test, thereby the presence of unexplained infertility.

5. Failure of implantation

Failure of implantation also leads to atrophy of the zygote and subsequently shedding of the endometrial lining as menses.

6. Advanced maternal age

Advanced maternal age is not a relative cause of infertility so it falls under the probable causes of unexplained infertility. With advanced maternal age, the egg cells may have reduced capacity for fertilization, leading to failure to produce a product of conception.

7. Defects in folate pathway genes

The folate pathway is responsible for normal egg cell growth and fertilization. When defects arise, it may lead to unexplained infertility.

Treatments of unexplained infertility

Unexplained infertility is usually managed by using the following measures:

1. Administration of clomiphene citrate

Clomiphene citrate is a medication given to women to stimulate the ovaries to produce egg cells. Because of hyperstimulation of the ovaries, it may lead to multiple pregnancies as a result of multiple egg cells that can be produced at a time.

2. Intrauterine insemination

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the artificial fertilization of the egg cell using sperm cells within the uterus itself. Intrauterine insemination is done within two days of human chorionic gonadotropin administration to trigger ovulation. The intrauterine insemination is also performed during three menstrual cycles to ensure successful pregnancy.

3. In vitro fertilization

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the final resort when intrauterine fertilization does not result in pregnancy. As opposed to IUI, IVF involves fertilization of the egg cell using a healthy sperm cell outside the woman’s body to ensure a successful fertilization process.

Unexplained infertility may go undetected, but managements are usually effective in providing good results to patients.

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