Human Eye is a sense organ, small ball in size that allows vision and light perception.
Vitreous humour is a transparent jelly like substances that occupies the space between retina and the lens of the Eye. This clear gel substance provides support to the retina, allows the light to pass through to reach retina and maintains the shape of the eyes posterior chamber. This is made up primarily of water, containing million of collagen fibris supported by hyaluronic acid molecules. Vitreous Humour is connected to retina and fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eye.
As people ages’, Hyaluronic acid begin to decrease and vitreous humour of the eye change and starts to shrink from its original form, this process is called Synchysis. If the synchysis continue to progress, the vitreous humour will separate from the retina and this condition is referred as Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD).
About 75% of PVD occur among people over the age of 65, but may also happen for adults under 40s and 50s in age. Research have found that it is more common among women than men.
PVD may happen early if you have eye injury or if you have near-sightedness or Myopia. It has also been reported that people who have PVD in their one eye are likely to have one in the other eye, although for some in might not happen after some years.
Posterior Vitreous Detachment Symptoms
There are situation in which patients with is not aware that they have developed it. Symptoms of PVD is considered as not so serious, but patient will encounter some difficulties:
Patients will experience sudden onset of floaters. It can be dot, spots, or wispy lace particles floating across vision. Usually single, but can be also multiple floaters. If multiple floaters is present, it is more suggestive of a Vitreous hemorrhage is associated with Retinal Detachment, much more if positive visual acuity reduction. Patients who experienced Diffuse floaters during eye examinations is more likely suffering from Benign Vitrous syneresis,
Flashes of lights (Photopsia)
These lightning streaks are seen in your peripheral vision. Ocular flashes is experience once the separation of vitreous cause traction over the retina. The retina will get irritated causing it to release electrical impulses. The brain will interpret these impulses as Flashes. It usually lasts for 4 to 12 weeks or may last much longer.
It is a ring shaped floaters, larger in size as compared to usual floaters that is commonly experience by a person with PVD. It is more clearly seen underlight background. This happen when the vitreous humour was released from the back of the eye.
Posterior Vitreous Detachment Causes
Posterior vitreous detachment is common cause of flashes and floater, though it is not a serious situation, it brings some discomfort to the affected people. Causes of Posterior vitreous detachments are the following:
People over 60 years of age are more common to develop PVD, the risk increases as a person grows older. The vitreous starts to change, and started to reduce its volume that may lead to fall away from retina.
Near sightedness or popularly known as Myopia, it is a condition that the light produces image in front of the retina. When a persons look in a distant object the visualize object is out of focus, but in focus when looking in a closer object.
Uveitis is the inflammation of the Uvea or the middle layer of the eye. The common cause of Uveitis are autoimmune disorders, infection or it can be exposure to toxins. One of possible complication of Uveitis is Vitreous detachment.
Intraocular laser treatment
This treatment is common to people who are near-sighted, some of them who had received intaocular laser treatment later reports symptoms of PVD.
Most common cause of PVD among younger person is post intraocular surgey. There are about 1% of people who undergone intraocular surgery report incidents of having PVD.
Patient with injuries in the eyes commonly develops PVD, especially the blunt or any ocular injuries penetrates and cause traction to the vitreous and even to the retina.
There are various tests available to rule out Posterior vitreous detachment. It is important to have immediate and accurate examination,
not only to confirm the eyes’ condition but also to determine the extent of the said condition. They are as follows:
Dilated eye examination
It is a painless procedure in which the eye is being examined for eye problems like PVD. Using dilation drops, it is instilled in your eyes to widen the pupils. After 30 minutes of instilling dilation drops, the Opthalmologist using equipment will check your dilated eye if there are any problems occurring internally.
Using a lighted magnifying instruments passing through the retina. Eyes is being scanned, producing digital images of the retina. It can give a clear picture to confirm PVD.
Ultrasound is a procedure that uses high frequency sound waves that pass through the eye. Reflection of sound waves figure the structure, and measure the size of the eye. There are two types of ultrasonography for the eyes. A-scan ultrasonography is most commonly use to measure eye length conjunction. During cataract surgery it determine the intraocular lens power. The other type is the B-scan ultrasonography is a tool used to evaluate different kinds of eye disorder. It gives the idea on the status of the lens, vitreous, retina, choroid and sclera.
Posterior Vitreous Detachment Treatment
In most cases, Posterior Vitreous Detachment is not sight threatening and does not require treatment since it does not result in permanent loss of vision. Symptoms will gradually subside after a few weeks or months, though people may find it disturbing.
Presence of retinal tear needs further assessment by an Opthalmologist for possible repair to prevent Retinal Detachment to happen.
Some Doctors offer treatment to reduce floaters and to prevent it to became bigger. But it is not recognised as a standard treatment in some countries and not practised worldwide.
Strenous activity like heavy exercise, running, active sports are avoided six weeks after the appearance of symptoms of PVD. During this period the retina is most at risk for detachment. Follow up check up with your health care provider is recommended after the diagnosis. It will be able to determine if vitreous have completely detached from the retina. Permission from your Doctor to resume on performing heavy activity is a big necessity.
ICD 9 Code
International Statistical Classification of Disease and related health problems or ICD is a medical classification published by the World Health Organization to provide codes to describe diseases and categorized a variety of sign, symptoms andcauses.
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